Introduction to Selenium

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Introduction to Selenium

Testing is a process, where we verify and validate that the actual matches the expected. That’s one of the easiest way to put this complex process into wording. And automation basically means something which allows replacing man with a machine. The most basic example of automation is a “wheel”. Test Automation is a process where we automate the process of testing. Or in other words – Software test automation refers to the activities and efforts that intend to automate engineering tasks and operations in a software test process using well-defined strategies and systematic solutions.


What is RPA (Robotic Process Automation)?

Robotic process automation (RPA) is an emerging form of clerical process automation technology based on the notion of software robots or artificial intelligence (AI) workers.

Defining RPA: Taking the robot out of the human
At first glance, RPA may sound like theoretical tech along the lines of self-aware artificial intelligence, but the actual mechanics are much more mundane and connected to modern business operations.

RPA involves the use of automated “bots” to manage a wide variety of internal processes that would otherwise require manual operation. These tasks can include anything from processing insurance claims to opening new bank accounts, but RPA solutions are often used for time-consuming and arduous jobs that don’t take advantage of knowledge workers’ specialized expertise and skill sets. As TechTarget explained, record management, handling transactions and running database queries are all viable candidates for RPA implementation.

When used in the right environments, RPA tools can replace thousands of manhours handling repetitive tasks, freeing up staff members to tackle more value-driven projects.

What are RPA robots?
When we talk about robots as they pertain to RPA, what we really mean is software. Bots in this sense refer to programs that simulate a human activity, like crawling data repositories for information, for instance. By automating bots to respond to particular events with a predefined set of actions, businesses can dramatically increase the speed of their internal workflows, while also minimizing the potential for costly mistakes like data entry errors.

The important criteria to keep in mind when discussing RPA and its potential applications is structure and repeatability. RPA bots are not “intelligent” or “thinking” the same way machine learning and AI tools are. At their most fundamental capabilities, RPA solutions are not able to self-improve or think critically about the task at hand. They just do what they’re told.

In this way, RPA is a very different form of technology than ML or AI. It is arguably more beneficial and relevant to modern-day business, especially among organizations that rely on numerous repetitive workflows to operate. While RPA isn’t a self-learning asset, it can be configured to spot errors and mistakes in internal processes and flag them accordingly. With the combined benefits of accelerated business speed, increased workflow accuracy and employee productivity, it’s easy to see why this technology has generated a lot of interest.

Major RPA software tools
When vetting potential RPA platforms, decision-makers should look for solutions that can be applied to workflows specific to their industry. RPA software may not necessarily be custom designed with a certain vertical in mind, but it should be able to support common processes and the most beneficial applications.

With that in mind, there are three RPA software leaders that can support most automation use cases. They are:

  • UiPath
  • Automation Anywhere
  • Blue Prism

All are powerful tools that simplify the creation and deployment of RPA bots. Choosing between them will come down to several factors, including your projected course along the RPA maturity curve and the specific nature of your implementation. You can learn more about the different RPA platforms in our vendor comparison white paper, available here.

Industry-specific RPA applications are listed below.

  • Insurance: RPA can streamline time-intensive tasks like claims processing that are both relatively simple to conduct and repeatable.
  • Human resources: Many HR tasks are ripe for RPA implementation. Employee onboarding, for example, includes a number of processes that could easily be handled by automated bots.
    Health care: There are a wide variety of internal tasks that can be enhanced through RPA, including processing medical insurance claims, managing patient records while complying with industry regulations and executing billing jobs.
  • Financial services: Banks and other financial institutions can automate account openings, financial transactions and comply with audit requests.
    Customer service: Contact center operations can be drastically improved by using RPA to integrate information from various databases and place it in the hands of customer service representatives.
  • Payment processing: The processing of clearinghouse payments is sufficiently routine that it can be automated. A Fortune 100 diversified bank recently used RPA to automate its ACH (automated clearing house) payment processing.
  • Request processing: RPA can be used to automate certain routine customer requests. A leading European food producer used RPA to automate the processing of simple customer order inquiries, reducing manual effort by 40-60%.
  • Validation: RPA is also useful in performing tasks involving validation, as it is easy for computers to tell if one thing is not exactly the same as another. As an example, BNY Mellon automated web-based client record reconciliation, freeing its employees from a tedious, mistake-prone process.
Software Development Software Quality Assurance SQL

The Importance of SQL Skills for Quality Analyst / Tester

The demand for “all around” testers is growing.

What does the phrase “all around” mean? It means that testers should be equipped with the ability to test the system’s functionality through traditional “point, click, and verify” testing methods AND be able to utilize their technical expertise to verify all aspects of a system. That technical expertise includes operating system, interface, and database verification skills. In this blog, I will highlight the importance of good Structured Query Language (SQL) skills.

Software Quality Assurance

Internet of things (IOT) Testing

The “Internet of things” (IoT) is becoming an increasingly growing topic of conversation both in the workplace and outside of it. This concept not only has the potential to impact how we live but also how we work.
Simply put, this is the concept of basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). This includes everything from cellphones, coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps, wearable devices and almost anything else you can think of.

The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of all the web-enabled devices that collect, send and act on data they acquire from their surrounding environments using embedded sensors, processors and communication hardware.
These devices, often called “connected” or “smart” devices, can sometimes talk to other related devices, a process called machine-to-machine(M2M) communication, and act on the information they get from one another.
Humans can interact with the gadgets to set them up, give them instructions or access the data, but the devices do most of the work on their own without human intervention.
Connected devices also generate massive amounts of Internet traffic, including loads of data that can be used to make the devices useful, but can also be mined for other purposes. All this new data, and the Internet-accessible nature of the devices, raises both privacy and security concerns.

This technology allows for a level of real-time information that we’ve never had before. We can monitor our homes and families remotely to keep them safe. Businesses can improve processes to increase productivity and reduce material waste and unforeseen downtime. Sensors in city infrastructure can help reduce road congestion and warn us when infrastructure is in danger of crumbling.


The Philips Hue lighting system is the most popular of the smart device bulbs. It can change colors you choose, they’ll even match the tones in a photo that you upload via the app. They can also be turned on and off on a schedule or from your smartphone, and the Hue bulbs can even be synced with your music for an awesome sound-and-light party.

Home Automation using Google Home or Amazon Alexa – These home control systems lets you control most of the electronic connections in your house through an app on your smartphone. It works irrespective of your location and is done over the internet.


  • Security is a crucial issue on the Internet, and it is probably the most significant challenge for the IoT.When you increase the number of connected devices, the number of opportunities to exploit vulnerabilities through poorly designed devices can expose user’s data to theft, especially when the data streams are left with inadequate protection.


  • The Internet of Things presents some unique challenges when it comes to privacy, and a lot of that goes far beyond the data privacy issues that exist currently. Much of this is because of the trouble integrating devices into the environments without people using them consciously.

  • An absence of standards may well enable inappropriate behavior by IoT devices. Without the right standards to guide and regulate manufacturers, developers may design products that operate in any number of disruptive ways online without regard for their impact. When they are configured or designed poorly, these devices may have negative consequences for networking resources they connect to and, in the broader picture, the Internet itself.


Following are the few of the most used technologies in IoT:

  • RFID [Radio Frequency Code]
  • tags and EPC [Electronic Product Code]
  • NFC
  • [Near Field Communication] is used to enable two-way interactions between the electronic devices. This is basically for the smartphones and is mostly used to do the contactless payment transactions.
  • This is used where short range communications are enough to get away with the problem. This is mostly used in wearable technologies.
  • Z-WAVE
  • This is a low power RF comm technology. This is primarily used for home automation, lamp controlling etc.
  • WIFI
  • This is the most commonly used choice for IoT. When on a LAN, this helps in transferring files, data and messages seamlessly.


  • The device should be smart enough to push not only the notifications but also the error messages, warnings etc.

    The system should have an option to log all the events to provide clarity to the end users. If it is not capable of doing that, the system should push those as well to a database to store it.The notifications should be shown and handling of the display should be done properly in the devices [computers/mobile devices].

    Usability in terms of displaying data, processing data, pushing job tasks from the devices should be tested thoroughly.

  • The system has to be available all the time and should have seamless connectivity.

    As per connectivity, two things are very important to test;

    Connectivity, transfer of data, receiving job tasks from the devices should be seamless when the connection is UP and running.
    The other condition is the connection down scenario. Doesn’t matter how robust is the system and the network, there are chances that the system will go offline. Being a tester, we should test the offline conditions as well.

  • As testers, we need to make sure the system performs the same even though the added data is propagated.

  • Testing items such as, multiple operating system versions, browser types and respective versions, communication modes [For e.g. Bluetooth 2.0, 3.0] is necessary for IoT compatibility testing.

  • IoT is a combination of multiple protocols, devices, operating systems, firmware, hardware, networking layers etc.

    When an upgrade is performed, be it for the system or for any of the involved items, thorough regression testing should be carried out/strategy should be adopted so as overcome upgrade related issues.